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Playing next. 11. March 23, 2021. West became famous by reinvigorating sample-based production, often relying on soul samples that he chopped and sped up. The artists and groups most often associated with this phase are Public Enemy, B… He successfully lobbied to get 2 Live Crew’s album, As Nasty As They Wanna Be, banned in Broward County, Florida.32 Luther Campbell and other members of 2 Live Crew were arrested in June 1990 in Hollywood, Florida, for performing songs on their album. Even though many in the hip hop world considered Nas the winner of the battle, both artists traded lyrical barbs on their follow-up albums. The Original Hip-Hop Lyrics Archive. Scores of Americans, mostly white and wealthy, have packed the theater to watch Lin Manuel Miranda’s hip hop musical—Hamilton—dramatizing the life of founding father, Alexander Hamilton. The questions of who is a “real nigga” and what is “real hip hop” often intersect with masculinity, place and space, and aesthetics.2 Rap also illustrates how inner-city youth repurposed music technology such as record players, records, mixers, and samplers to create a new genre of music. The breakbeat formed the sonic backbone of rap music. George Lipsitz, Dangerous Crossroads: Popular Music, Postmodernism and the Politics of Place (New York: Verso, 1994), 25. His label featured a small roster of performers in the beginning—him, his wife, Sonya Miller, his brother, Silkk the Shocker, rap producer E-A-Ski, and their group Tru. American hip hop was exported to the UK in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Rap Music, and the culture that surrounds rapping itself, hip-hop, is a genre of music and a lifestyle which originated in the housing projects of New York City, New York in the late 1970s but which now has global influence. and Puff Daddy for their violent lyrics, materialism, and striving for more commercial success. “Rapper’s Delight” also introduced another tension in rap music that persisted—that of authenticity, what was “real” and what was not. Publications such as The Source, Vibe Magazine, and XXL, as well as television shows such as Yo! The trio shattered barriers for future generations with a bold and wildly innovative style of hip-hop that captivated fans from Queens to Macedonia. 30. American history x rap- my life. But the whole process hasn’t gone well. More rappers began partnering with corporations to endorse or create products. Many artists have enjoyed crossover success in acting, advertising, and business. DJ Kool Herc is widely credited with kicking off the genre. Tupac Shakur was gunned down in Las Vegas in September 7, 1996, and died of his wounds six days later. The DJ’s influence decreased while the MC emerged as the focal point. Sewell Chan, “Remembering the ’77 Blackout,” The New York Times, July 9, 2007. DJs sampled this music, which entailed using parts of songs or reinterpreting them. Adam Bradley and Andrew DuBois, eds., The Anthology of Rap (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2010), 283. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary gives a date of 1541 for the first recorded use of the word with the meaning "to utter (esp. Gwendolyn Pough, Check It While I Wreck It: Black Womanhood, Hip-Hop Culture, and the Public Sphere (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2004); Michael P. Jeffries, Thug Life: Race, Gender, and The Meaning of Hip-Hop (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2011). Tips to elevate your hybrid or virtual sales strategy Yet, hip hop culture eventually expanded into other entertainment forms during the 1980s. History of Rap Rap music was born in the Bronx (New York) during the 1970s due to the collaboration between african american singers (later known as MCs) and some instrumental DJs who made the beat for the songs. Jeffrey O. G. Ogbar, The Hip-Hop Revolution: The Culture and Politics of Rap (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2007), 5–7. Ross adopted the name of drug dealer Freeway Ricky Ross, who admonished the rapper for taking his name. Deejays formed the base of hip hop culture during the 1970s. American History Rap. This musical genre was taken by Jamaicans to the United States, more specifically to poorer New York neighborhoods in the early 1970s. The group encountered sexist treatment in the industry. Hip-hop, cultural movement that attained popularity in the 1980s and ’90s and the backing music for rap, the musical style incorporating rhythmic and/or rhyming speech that became the movement’s most lasting and influential art form. Publications such as The Source, Vibe Magazine, and XXL, as well as television shows such as Yo! They distinguished themselves from other artists by wearing black leather jackets, black fedora hats, large gold chains, and Adidas sneakers. Salt-n-Pepa’s 1987 “Push It” was their breakout single. Rather than just relying on techniques such as using two records and turntables to create a breakbeat, creating pause tapes, producers began using electronic samplers and beat machines such as the SK-1, SP-1200, and the Akai MPC. 3. Pough illustrates how black women rappers had to “wreck it,” demonstrating great lyrical skill, to carve a space in the predominantly black male rap counterpublic. “Bibliography,” The Hip Hop Archive, Hip Hop Archive and Research Institute at the Hutchins Center, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. The X-Clan returned in 2007 with Return from Mecca, which included one of the genre’s most potent songs, simply called “Prison,” which criticized mass incarceration. Native Americans have been present in hip-hop culture since its inception as breakdancers, DJs, rappers, and graffiti artists. Figure 1. The group also belonged to a collective called the Dungeon Family, named after the studio where they recorded their music, which consisted of the producers Organized Noize, Goodie Mob, Sleepy Brown, Big Rube, the Witchdoctor, and Cool Breeze.51. 37. Outkast seemed to draw from various influences that included P-Funk, Afrika Bambaataa, black southern culture, and the Native Tongues. In 1993, the group released its second album, Black Sunday, which sold more than 3 million albums. PLEASE SUBSCRIBE TO MY CHANNELThe United States of America has a fascinating and deep history. 57. The event featured several notable DJs and rappers, including Grandmaster Flash, Melle Mel, and the Mercedes Ladies, an all-woman hip hop group. It was a lament against urban poverty, like the Blues had been a lament against rural poverty. The nine-member group led by The RZA—GZA/Genius, Inspectah Deck, Raekwon, Ghostface Killa, Method Man, Ol’ Dirty Bastard, U-God, and Masta Killa—announced themselves in October 1992 on the aggressive single, “Protect Ya Neck.”43 The Wu Tang Clan’s contractual arrangement with Loud Records altered the way rap groups interacted with record labels. Gwendolyn Pough builds upon black feminist scholars such as Tricia Rose in her book, Check It While I Wreck It: Black Womanhood, Hip-Hop Culture, and the Public Sphere. History 1980–1990 Early ... Black American gangsta rap, however, is not the only type of rap that has developed in Germany. Corrections? The East Coast–West Coast beef provoked a critique from more “conscious” artists, revealing another division within the genre bubbling beneath the surface. Missy “Misdemeanor” Elliot was another trailblazer in rap (Figure 6). Ruthless Records also featured the all-woman group, J. J. Fad, whose platinum-selling album, Supersonic, provided the funding needed to release NWA’s debut album, Straight Outta Compton. The mainstreaming of the genre was never more clearly demonstrated than in 2004, when break-dancers were invited to perform in the Vatican before Pope John Paul II. Soon after, he parted ways with the other Roc-A-Fella co-owners. Obama also publicly exhibited his affinity with hip hop culture. The cost for labels to not only record albums and produce videos, but to invest in a woman’s upkeep, was more expensive, thus, making her more expendable.56. Rap is featured in movies, television, and on Broadway. The Best American Rappers Les nouveautés quotidiennes Follow Us Rap intersected with electoral politics during the early 1990s. Critics have raised questions about the violent and misogynistic lyrics contained in rap culture, even going as far as to censor it. The restructuring of the music industry made women and men more disposable. Public Enemy’s “Fight the Power,” which appeared on Spike Lee’s Do the Right Thing soundtrack, is often recognized as one of the genre’s iconic protest anthems. Steve Hochman, “Two Members of 2 Live Crew Arrested,” Los Angeles Times, June 11, 1990; “The Anatomy of a Crusade,” Los Angeles Times, June 18, 1990. Sasha Jenkins, Elliot Wilson, Chairman Mao, Gabriel Alvarez, and Brent Rollins, Ego Trip’s Book of Rap Lists (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999), 30. 25. Rapping over Chic’s “Good Times” instrumental, Sugar Hill Gang’s “Rapper’s Delight” put rap on record. While not without controversy and numerous critics, rap music has emerged as one of the most popular musical forms in the world. Public Enemy included Chuck D, the wacky Flavor Flav, DJ Terminator X, their version of the Fruit of Islam, the Security of the First World (S1W), and the production crew, the Bomb Squad. In that decade, fiscal crisis, deindustrialization, white flight, and urban renewal decimated the Bronx. The Enemy Strikes Black—commented on a range of political issues, including black empowerment, racism in Hollywood, the history of minstrelsy, and police brutality. While the official starting date for the history of rap music is somewhat debated, it’s undeniable that rap began as a genre when New York DJs would sample percussive elements from disco, soul, and funk as a means to create a repetitive beat. Latifah’s and Salt-N-Pepa’s success did not preclude black women artists from being marginalized, however. In April 2008, he famously brushed his shoulder in response to a criticism from Hillary Clinton. He caught Eminem’s ear, and Eminem eventually signed him to Shady-Aftermath where he released hit songs such as “In Da Club” and the overwhelming successful Get Rich or Die Tryin’ and The Massacre. Did he represent rap’s version of Elvis Presley, a white performer who so successfully repackaged black cultural practices for mass audiences?54 The answer to the question was more complex. Herc noticed dancers enjoyed grooving to the intermittent drum break found within particular songs.5 Deejays also enlisted MCs to assist in regulating the crowd. Sampling in hip hop changed as music technology transformed. The first three prominent DJs were born either in the Caribbean or into an immigrant family. Rap music was on TV as well. Also, the Sugar Hill Gang was a manufactured group, while other collectives assembled out of prior relationships and in relation to specific conditions. KRS One pointed to Kool Herc and Coke LaRock’s parties and Afrika Bambaataa’s Zulu Nation as the progenitors of the culture in “South Bronx.” KRS One effectively won the battle with “The Bridge Is Over” where he rapped over a dancehall track using a Jamaican accent, underlining the historical Caribbean–Bronx connection. reemphasized the subgenre during the 2000s. 46. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …in many music and especially rap videos as well as in live concerts by popular artists such as Britney Spears. & Rakim, and Ice Cube. He also bridged generation and stylistic gaps in rap music. Some critics refer to Illmatic as the greatest rap album of all time because of the combination of Nas’s poetic rhymes and its sonic backdrop composed by multiple up-and-coming producers such as Main Source member Large Professor, DJ Premier from Gangstarr, A Tribe Called Quest’s Q-Tip, and Pete Rock. Jeff Mao, “Interview: Mtume on Miles Davis, Juicy Fruit and Donny Hathaway’s Last Recording Session,” Red Bull Music Academy, May 13, 2014. Eminem’s movie, which was loosely based on his experiences seeking acceptance and success in local hip hop culture, 8 Mile, and its soundtrack, propelled him further into the mainstream. De La Soul drew fire from Treach for Naughty By Nature and Tupac Shakur for “Ego Trippin’” and remarks they made on the 1996 album, Stakes Is High, which served as a rebuke of rap’s gangsterism. By the end of the decade, rap simultaneously grew both more national and more regional. Austin McCoy, “Holding it Down For Women: Nicki Minaj and the Problem of Gender Inequity in Hip Hop,” Nursing Clio, July 25, 2012. Although West supplied beats for the likes of Roc-A-Fella artists such as Jay-Z and Beanie Sigel, as well as other artists such as Talib Kweli and Scarface, he saw himself as a vocalist. Cuban American rapper, Pitbull, surpassed Big Pun in commercial success in the 2000s. Released in 1983, Style Wars and Wild Style documented the lives of graffiti writers. : The Politics of Hip Hop’s ‘Funky Ass Jews,’” Another Level, August 17, 2012. Around 60,000 Bronx homes were razed during the 1960s and 1970s.7 The decline of the Black Power movement, the rise of drug markets, and street gangs provided the backdrop for young blacks and Puerto Ricans who sought to make sense of their lives artistically during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Their early catalog featured punk-rock-influenced anthems such as “Fight for Your Right” and the frat boy humor featured in singles like “Hey Ladies.” Despite being one of the few Jewish, if not white, rap acts, the Beastie Boys illustrated how hip hop and punk rock emerged in the same historical, spatial, and political context.23, Some DJs such as Mr. Magic, Kool DJ Red Alert, and DJ Marley Marl became players in the industry. Charnas, 134. Jay-Z runs his own entertainment company, Roc Nation, which specializes in music, film, television, marketing, and talent representation. Fly Emcee, and Mos Def and Talib Kweli mocked and criticized mainstream artists such as the Notorious B.I.G. Video conference trends for 2021; March 12, 2021. No group had a bigger impact on hip hop culture during this period than Run-DMC. These struggles have not totally foreclosed success for women. March 23, 2021. Dr. Dre unleashed his debut album, The Chronic, in 1992 after he left Ruthless Records for Suge Knight’s Death Row Records. The battle between MC Shan and Boogie Down Productions (BDP) vocalist, KRS One, centered on rap music’s origins. 33. 16. Figure 7. Staying true to his Jamaican roots, he was known in the Bronx for having the loudest sound system. Queen Latifah has successfully crossed over from rap to acting in television and movies. This decade also saw the proliferation of black-run rap record labels, which were often subsidiaries of larger conglomerates. History of rap and hip hop. 66. In this emotional maelstrom, a new form of music was born. Rick Ross’s persona and hit song, “Hustlin,” raised questions about authenticity in hip hop. Queensbridge’s Nasty Nas, released his debut album, Illmatic in 1994. Lil’ Kim’s and Foxy Brown’s lyricism and image on songs such as “Crush on You” and “Gotta Get You Home” embodied sexual freedom. Dead Prez’s Let’s Get Free criticized poverty, the education system, and policing. 48. Some say that DJ Hollywood was one of the first rappers who started making rap music, but when Kurtis Blow released the song The Breaks, he became the most famous … Pitchfork Staff, “Atlanta to Atlantis: An OutKast Retrospective,” Pitchfork, November 5, 2013. This will clear your Bing search history on this device. Young Money’s Nicki Minaj and former T.I. During the 1980s, a few women rappers would move from the margins closer to the mainstream. In the early 1990s, the "hip-hop/rap" genre exploded to become, by far, the most common genre of music on the Billboard Hot 100 charts for two decades (see the graphs below). This musical genre was taken by Jamaicans to the United States, more specifically to poorer New York neighborhoods in the early 1970s. D a.k.a. Blog. Rap music is an example of what scholars have called polyculturalism, which refers to the notion that various racial and ethnic groups have historically exchanged and borrowed ideas and cultural practices.1 Black and Latinx youth in New York City, many of them Caribbean immigrants, responded to poverty, urban renewal, deindustrialization, and inner-city violence by creating their own cultural practices—throwing parties featuring DJs playing breakbeats, MCs rapping and regulating the crowd, dancers breaking to the beat, and graffiti artists tagging trains and walls. History Early years. Dr. Dre and Interscope Records’ Jimmy Iovine invested in Beats headphones, which was subsequently bought by Apple. The beef allegedly began the night of November 30, 1994 when several burglars ambushed, shot, and robbed Tupac Shakur at Quad Studios while the Notorious BIG recorded inside. He was shot while his vehicle was at a stoplight. In Wallace’s case, it is possible his killing was in retaliation of Shakur’s death, although there is little substantiated evidence linking him, or Sean Combs, to it. Ben Westhoff,The Dirty South: Outkast, Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, and the Southern Rappers Who Reinvented Hip-Hop (Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 2011), 118. Lyricists and producers also innovated rap music. He rapped about growing up in a single-parent household in an impoverished trailer park in Detroit.55 Eminem built on the success of his first two albums, which included Marshall Mathers LP, by releasing albums with his group of Detroit rappers, D12, and starting his own label, Shady Records. Much mystery surrounded their deaths. The Beatnuts helped thrust Big Pun into the mainstream when they featured him on their hit song, “Off the Books.” Big Pun released his debut solo album, Capital Punishment, in 1998. The popularity of the South’s “trap music” surged in the 21st century.59 Atlanta’s T.I. How neuroscience principles can lead to better learning; March 15, 2021. Eric Thurm, “A beginner’s guide to hip-hop collective Native Tongues,” The Av Club, July 5, 2013. By the mid-1970s, DJs Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash, and Afrika Bambaataa dominated the burgeoning hip hop scene. pochen) deutet die Art der Musik und des Sprechgesangs an. This has not stopped women from participating despite often vacillating between the margins and center of rap music. Figure 5. It appeared that Shakur’s death was related to a physical altercation with a gang member the night of his death. On November 12, Donda West, mother of Kanye West , dies of complications from surgery. You can't undo it. Rap music sparked new conversations about race and authenticity, gender, sexuality, and respectability, social problems such as police brutality, as well as Black and Latinx youth’s relationship to politics, technology, and the economy. She responded with “Roxanne’s Revenge,” where she claimed that she had better rap skills and that she would have “fired them” if they worked for her.25 MC Lyte performed songs that captured the lived experiences of black women. met a similar fate in Los Angeles on March 9, 1997. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. She has also served as a Covergirl model. 17 mentions J’aime. The song ridiculed New York City, and the video featured a giant Snoop Dogg kicking down the city’s buildings. Krush Groove, starring Blair Underwood as Russell Simmons, comically dramatized the founding of Def Jam Recordings. Queensbridge’s Roxanne Shante made a name for herself after confronting the rap group, U.T.F.O., for their song called “Roxanne, Roxanne,” which was about a woman refusing their advances. The South Bronx shed tens of thousands of manufacturing jobs. Ben Westhoff’s Original Gangstas: The Untold Story of Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube, Tupac Shakur, and the Birth of West Coast Rap and Dirty South: Outkast, Lil Wayne, Souljah Boy and the Southern Rappers Who Reinvented Hip Hop are the first journalistic histories that shift the focus of rap’s origins to places such as Compton, Los Angeles, the Bay Area, New Orleans, and Atlanta. Politician Jack Thompson claimed that 2 Live Crew violated obscenity laws. The Notorious B.I.G. Shortly after, Big Bank Hank, Wonder Mike, and Master Gee recorded the first rap song, “Rapper’s Delight.”. The post depicted some American guys aggressively doing terrible British accents, the video captioned, “UK n****s when you tell them UK rap is trash”. The first widely recognized Chicano rap artist was former electro musician Kid Frost, whose 1990 debut album Hispanic Causing Panic driven by the hit single "La Raza" brought new attention to Chicano rappers on the West Coast. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Library, Division of Rare & Manuscript Collections, 2013. Emcees engaged the crowd by screaming rhyming catch-phrases and leading chants. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Urban renewal projects and the construction of the Cross-Bronx Expressway displaced African Americans and Puerto Ricans. There were strong themes of Afrocentrism and political militancy in golden age hip hop lyrics. 50 Cent and G-Unit would rerecord other artists’ songs, infusing them with their gangsta style. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Bronx rapper Fat Joe also appealed to underground audiences in the first half of the 1990s, until he discovered another Latino rapper who would push Latinx rap further into the mainstream, Big Punisher (Big Pun). She and her brother discovered Henry “Big Bank Hank” Jackson, a worker at a local pizzeria. The History of Rap in China, Part 1: Early Roots and Iron Mics (1993-2009) ... Gao says some of these issues have arisen due to elements of American hip hop culture getting lost in translation. Lesson Summary While T.I released his first album, I’m Serious, in 2001, he did not reach mainstream stardom until the mid-2000s. However, the Los Angeles Police Department’s (LAPD’s) killing of Eula Love in 1979 over a gas bill and their fifteen killings while using chokeholds during the early 1980s supported NWA’s criticisms of policing.24 Yet, while NWA appeared as another source of resistance against state violence, these songs appeared alongside others such as “A Bitch iz a Bitch” and “She Swallowed It,” which contained sexist and misogynistic lyrics. However, the overwhelming success of his and Ryan Lewis’s debut album, The Heist, raised questions about race and authenticity in hip hop. 62. The Sequence included Cheryl Cook, also known as “Cheryl the Pearl,” Gwendolyn Chisolm, known as “Blondie,” and Angie Brown Stone, who went by “Angie B.” The Sequence released “Funk You Up” in December 1979. 64. However, New York City radio DJ Angie Martinez embarked on a short, yet rather successful, rap career during the mid- to late 1990s that culminated in the release of two albums, Up Close and Personal in 2001 and Animal House in 2002. : Wax Facts Press, 2014); Based in Atlanta, Andre Benjamin and Big Boi adopted the playa persona on their first album. To some DJs and MCs, hip hop could not be captured on record because it was a moment. Other rappers sought to position themselves as leading artists in the culture in the wake of Shakur’s and the Notorious B.I.G.’s deaths. Drawing from the city’s history of deindustrialization, Invincible has spoken out against urban disinvestment and gentrification. During the 1990s, a more diverse group of women rappers emerged, and some moved closer to the mainstream. Event flier for a hip hop performance at Walton High School on January 12, 1979. 2. He released two albums, starred in movies Above the Rim and Poetic Justice, and appeared as a guest on The Cosby Show. Public Enemy used new digital technology to sample (use excerpts from… However, artists like Outkast and rap labels like No Limit Records created a permanent home for the “dirty south” in hip hop culture. Thompson continued his protests against Geto Boys.34. The Mercedes Ladies’ attempts to break into the rap industry and to be compensated fairly anticipated the struggles that women artists generally faced.14, Rap music began its transition from moment to commodity in 1979. The group ushered in a harder, more intellectual, black nationalistic, version of rap music. Video conference trends for 2021; March 12, 2021. The Sequence challenged notions of rap as being thought of as an all-black male domain.16. Many of the rap histories are journalistic. He forged partnerships with products such as Kodak, Dr. Pepper, and Budweiser, and his music has been featured in NBA advertisements on the ESPN and ABC networks. The English verb rap has various meanings, these include "to strike, especially with a quick, smart, or light blow", as well "to utter sharply or vigorously: to rap out a command". Nadirah Simmons, “Today in 1995: The 2nd Annual Source Awards Makes Hip Hop History,” The, August 3, 2016. Hip hop also drew from other musical genres such as funk, disco, soul, and electronica. The group’s most charismatic member, Method Man, signed with Def Jam Records. Consequently, the blackout provided more aspiring DJs and artists greater access to necessary expensive equipment. In 2000, St. Louis rapper Nelly released Country Grammar, which featured the hit song by the same name. RAP first appeared in Jamaica in the 1960s. Jackson then recruited two of his friends and formed the Sugar Hill Gang. Their name—Outkast—also underscored the group’s outsider status. XXXTentacion's personal life and history are also noted as prominent parts of his legacy. Andrew Leach, “’One Day It’ll All Make Sense’: Hip-Hop and Rap Resources for Librarians,” Notes, 2d ser., 65.1 (September 2008): 9–37. Many scholars have been interested in the political potential of rap music and the hip hop generation.65 These texts specifically explore the intersections between hip hop culture and its relationship with traditional politics. With her career flailing, Robinson sought to capitalize on the growing rap phenomenon. However, Ross’s use of his imagination is what made his song, “Hustlin’” and his role as a performer significant.60. Also, West Coast rap grew out of the decline of black social movements, street gangs such as the Crips and Bloods, the illicit drug economy, and the war on drugs. Zack O’Malley Greenberg, “Cash Kings 2016: Hip-Hop’s Highest Earning Acts,” Forbes, September 7, 2016. Tupac was the wild card in the coastal dispute. These new cultural forms eventually spread beyond New York to all regions of the United States as artists from Los Angeles, New Orleans, Miami, and Chicago began releasing rap music with their own distinct sounds. The Original Hip Hop Lyrics Database also contains rap lyrics.70. Lester Spence, Stare into the Darkness: The Limits of Hip Hop and Black Politics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011), 1. Even though Detroit-based producer J. Dilla’s group, Slum Village, released their debut album, Fantastic, Vol. Political Scientist Lester Spence considers the development of hip hop culture in relation to the emergence of neoliberalism. 99% Invisible and The label originated from a record store called No Limit that he opened while living in Richmond, California.52 Master P formed No Limit Records in 1994 and moved it to New Orleans. Rap [ræp] (englisch rap Plauderei, Unterhaltung; englisch to rap plaudern, schwatzen) ist ein schneller, rhythmischer und markanter Sprechgesang in der populären Musik[1] und Teil der Kultur des Hip-Hop. The importance that some African tribes assign to oral humor, confidence, and derision has an after-thirst in the United States. For instance, Yo! While rap music’s popularity increased among young African Americans, Latinxs, and whites, rap groups and solo rappers struggled to gain credibility among older black DJs and a skeptical and discriminatory music industry. 12. Creative Commons License (, Photo by Sabrine Fricke.

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